The Constructal evolution of sports with throwing motion: baseball, golf, hockey and boxing.
A. Bejan et al., Int. J. of Design & Nature and Ecodynamics. Vol. 8 (2013) 1-16.
The authors “show that the trends in four sports are united by the evolutionary constructal design of all animal locomotion. The trend is toward greater effi ciency in the falling-forward movement of the body, and this is why the evolution of the throwing motion unites team sports (baseball, hockey) with individual sports (golf, boxing, running and swimming). Records during the past 100 years indicate that in these sports the trend has been toward bigger and taller bodies, which possess greater speed of falling forward and throwing, greater force, and greater throwing distance. Equipment technology (golf balls, hockey sticks) has evolved in the same direction.
In sum, the evolution of sports is in accord with the constructal law, and constitutes a “laboratory” for witnessing the evolution of biological design in our lifetime.” (Abstract)
- In baseball, bigger still better, Phys.org
- In Baseball, Bigger Still Better: Elite Pitchers Continue to Be Taller and Thus Throw Faster, ScienceDdaily.com
- Article (PDF)